Association of Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and clinical/severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients
نویسندگان: Asaad Azarnezhad ©
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Background and Aim
Growing evidence documented the critical impacts of vitamin D (VD) in the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. The functions of VD are dependent on the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the VD/VDR signaling pathway. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association of VDR gene polymorphisms with COVID-19 outcomes.
In the present study, eight VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 500 COVID-19 patients in Iran, including 160 asymptomatic, 250 mild/moderate, and 90 severe/critical cases. The association of these polymorphisms with severity, clinical outcomes, and comorbidities were evaluated through the calculation of the Odds ratio (OR).
Interestingly, significant associations were disclosed for some of the SNP-related alleles and/or genotypes in one or more genetic models with different clinical data in COVID-19 patients. Significant association of VDR-SNPs with signs, symptoms, and comorbidities was as follows: ApaI with shortness of breath (P ˂ 0.001) and asthma (P = 0.034) in severe/critical patients (group III); BsmI with chronic renal disease (P = 0.010) in mild/moderate patients (group II); Tru9I with vomiting (P = 0.031), shortness of breath (P = 0.04), and hypertension (P = 0.030); FokI with fever and hypertension (P = 0.027) in severe/critical patients (group III); CDX2 with shortness of breath (P = 0.022), hypertension (P = 0.036), and diabetes (P = 0.042) in severe/critical patients (group III); EcoRV with diabetes (P ˂ 0.001 and P = 0.045 in mild/moderate patients (group II) and severe/critical patients (group III), respectively). However, the association of VDR TaqI and BglI polymorphisms with clinical symptoms and comorbidities in COVID-19 patients was not significant.
VDR gene polymorphisms might play critical roles in the vulnerability to infection and severity of COVID-19, probably by altering the risk of comorbidities. However, these results require further validation in larger studies with different ethnicities and geographical regions.
COVID-19; Vitamin D receptor; Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); Genetic predisposition; Clinical outcomes
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