covid 19 and fungal infections
نویسندگان: Mohammad Satari Tazehshahri ©, Zafar Gholinejad
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قارچ شناسی پزشکی
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Background and Aim
As the human-to-human transmitted disease, coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has been an emergency global public health events. it is important to notice that COVID-19 patients can develop further fungal infections during the middle and latter stages of this disease, especially severely ill ones. after we search on a different articles we found COVID-19 patients, especially severely ill ones or accompanied with immunocompromised state, had co-infections of fungi. in France Lanjuan Li academician and her colleagues reminded clinicians should focus on patients’ fungal infections, especially severely ill or immunocompromised ones. Aspergillus species could be an important cause of life-threatening infection in COVID-19 patients, especially in those with high risk factors. The potential risk factors for the patients include GC use, prolonged neutropenia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. For the severe COVID-19 patients who have more opportunities to be treat with broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs, parenteral nutrition and invasive examinations, or the patients accompanied with prolonged neutropenia and other immune impairment factors, the risk of infection with Candida species may significantly increase. COVID-19 patients with trauma, diabetes mellitus, GC use, HM, prolonged neutropenia, allo-HSCT, SOT are more likely to develop mucormycosis.
To design a systematic search strategy to investigate fungal infection in COVID-19 positive patients; PubMed, Google Scholar, and other online web sources were searched from the last 3 month and analyzed using terminologies such as “COVID-19,” “SARS-CoV-2,” “Fungal infection,” “Mucormycete,” “Black Fungus,” “mucormycosis,” “Immune signaling,” “Immunotherapy,” “Diagnosis,” and “Treatment.” at the end try to use important data of articles that we found.
By analyzing retrospective analysis of SARS and influenza data from China and worldwide, we surmise that the fungal co-infections associated with global COVID-19 might be missed or misdiagnosed. Further, as a life-threatening infectious disease, COVID-19 patients showed overexpression of inflammatory cytokines, and impaired cell-mediated immune response with decreased CD4 + T and CD8 + T cell counts, indicating its susceptibility to fungal co-infection. Moreover, COVID-19 patients accompanied with immunocompromised state, such as prolonged neutropenia, HSCT, GC use, SOT, inherited or acquired immunodeficiencies, and tumor are more likely to develop fungal co-infection. Here, we summarized updated diagnostic information (histopathology, direct microscopic examination, culture, (1,3)-β-d-glucan, galactomannan, PCR-based assays, MALDI-TOF technology, etc.) and treatment recommendations of invasive mycosis.
According to the study of recent articles, at the end we come to the point that in patients who are in severe state of the covid 19 disease due to a weakened immune system and in cases that have hyperglycemia or people who has problems like these, They are prone to fungal infections. physicians need to consider this in severe state of covid 19 patients , and this is a very important point.
fungal infections; covid19 and mycosis; Fungal co-infection; SARS-CoV-2 fungal infections; Invasive fungal infections
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