The role of probiotics as anti-inflammatory agents in Covid-19

Azar Rahi ©, Mehdi Razzagh Shoar

The role of probiotics as anti-inflammatory agents in Covid-19

کد: G-89134

نویسندگان: Azar Rahi ©, Mehdi Razzagh Shoar

زمان بندی: زمان بندی نشده!

برچسب: میکروب شناسی

دانلود: دانلود پوستر

خلاصه مقاله:

Background and Aim

In December 2019, the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease, caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 strain, emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and shortly spread across the globe. To date, more than 9.2 million people have contracted COVID-19 infection with over 470,000 deaths worldwide. The highest mortality and morbidity in SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs in elderly and those with Co-morbidities including obesity and diabetes. It is noteworthy that these conditions may be associated with the gut microbiota dysbiosis. Therapeutic options are limited as one of the several factors that may contribute to severity of infection is gut microbiome status. Specifically, it is essential to have safe and effective interventions to prevent, reduce susceptibility and alleviate the severity of COVID-19. Interventions targeting the gut microbiome may have systemic antiviral effects in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods

The current understanding constitutes the notion that the gut microbiome can both regulate and be regulated by invading viruses, enabling either stimulatory or suppressive effects. Some commensal gut bacteria can contribute to defense against potential pathogens by communicating with human cells and promoting favorable immune interactions. while the advantageous effect of probiotics (defined as live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host) was originally thought to stem from progress in the intestinal microbial balance, there is now substantial evidence that probiotics can also prove helpful by modulating host immune responses.

Results

Probiotics have been shown to shape T cell subsets responses , stimulate antimicrobial peptide production by Paneth cells and direct Th17 cells differentiation in the small intestinal tract. Laboratory studies have reported that certain probiotics have anti-viral effects including those against other forms of coronavirus. Further research has reported the potential of probiotics to interact with ACE2, the host receptor of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Paenibacillus bacteria were shown to naturally produce carboxypeptidases homologous to ACE2 in structure and function. Some clinical trials have demonstrated that specific probiotics can reduce the frequency and duration of common upper respiratory tract infections, especially in children as well as some adults and long-term nursing home residents. As empirical antibiotics are widely used in the early phase of COVID-19 outbreak and may lead to more severe and unfavorable dysbiosis, reinforcement of colonic microbiota using probiotics has been proposed to reduce susceptibility to consequent secondary co-infections. In an anti-inflammatory response, some probiotic strains can induce regulatory T cells, via dendritic cell modulation in the gut mucosa, inducing IL-10, TGF-b, and enhancing the IgA excretion and gut barrier function.

Conclusion

SARS-CoV-2 associated-immune dysfunction and alterations in the gut microbiota present an exciting prospect for studies and discovery of microbial therapeutics to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a insistent need to characterize specific microbial species, prebiotics, or a combination that can boost immunity, and better recognize mechanisms of precision symbiotic with anti-viral immunity for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Significantly, different methodologies should be adopted to study associations between dietary and microbiome effects and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity.

Keywords

Covid-19; Probiotics; anti-inflammatory

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