New methods of laboratory diagnosis of malaria
نویسندگان: Mahdieh Sadat Badiee ©, Zahra Akbari Jonoush, Roya Mahdavi, Roya Emami Maybodi
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Background and Aim
Malaria is the most important human parasitic infection and causes high mortality in many tropical regions of the world. Malaria infection cannot be diagnosed by clinical examination due to the similarity of its clinical symptoms with other tropical infectious diseases, so it must be diagnosed and confirmed through a laboratory.
Laboratory tests for malaria include: 1- Preparation of thin and thick blood smear from the patient's fingertip and staining of blood spread and observation of malaria parasite with electron microscopy 2- Preparing an intradermal smear by making narrow holes on the forearm with a 25-gauge needle and placing its blood on a glass slide and staining and observing leukocytes containing malaria pigment with a light microscope. 3 - Molecular methods include polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a specific part of a selected region of the malaria genome and determine its genotype, as well as the use of PCR (SNP) to detect drug-resistant malaria and mixed infections. 4- Quantitative buffy coat method involves collecting blood by piercing a finger in a capillary tube containing orange acridine and anticoagulant and centrifuging the tube and observing the nucleus of the parasite in light green fluorescence and its cytoplasm in yellow-orange with Microscope equipped with a source of ultraviolet light 5 - Serological methods including indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) based on the use of specially prepared antigen attached on a slide that is kept at -30 ° C until the test and quantitatively both types of IgG and IgM antibodies in Examine the patient's.
Malaria diagnosis by conventional microscopy is the gold standard method for malaria diagnosis that is cheap and reliable. Diagnostic tests are fast, expensive, but fast and easy. Serology is the best method used as an epidemiological tool and is not suitable for diagnosing acute malaria.
Molecular techniques are best studied in appropriate research laboratories for the spread of drug resistance and recurrence, and They can be useful for identifying species when the number of parasites is very low or in some specimens that are at risk of extinction. Diagnostic tests based on HRP II provide positive results in the recovery phase of the disease due to the persistence of HRP II in the blood after the parasite is cleared.
malaria; laboratory diagnosis; molecular; serological; culture
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