Protective effects of natural compounds against paraquat-induced pulmonary toxicity: The role of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway
نویسندگان: Gholamreza Karimi ©, Hasan Badibostan, Razieh Mahvari, Nastran Eizadi-Mood
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Background and Aim
Paraquat (PQ) is a quaternary nitrogen herbicide that is highly toxic to humans. Once absorbed, PQ predominantly accumulates in the lungs. It has well documented that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the main mechanism of PQ toxicity.
Oxidative damages of PQ in lungs are represented as generation of cytotoxic and fibrotic mediators, interruption of epithelial and endothelial barriers, edema, collagen deposition and inflammatory cells infiltration. Up to now, no effective treatment for PQ has been introduced.
Cumulative studies have shown that natural compounds (NCs) such resveratrol and silymarin reveal protective effects against PQ-induced pulmonary toxicity, due to its antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects.
Based on various studies, NCs function as protective agent through stimulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway. Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway is the most important endogenous antioxidant pathway that discovered to date. Thus, we aimed to review the role of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in protective effects of NCs against PQ-induced pulmonary toxicity.
Paraquat; Natural Compounds; Protective; Toxicity; Nrf2
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